Pune, 2 Oct (The Press Watch) – Teacher’s Day is celebrated across India on September 5 every year to mark the birth anniversary of Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, the former President of India, who was a scholar, statesman and a respected teacher who shaped many minds and served the nation. On this occasion, the country salutes the dedication and commitment of all teachers, whose role in nation building is paramount. Teachers have been revered as Guru in Indian culture since the ancient times. It has always been a highly respected profession. Former President APJ Abdul Kalam had once said, “Teaching is a very noble profession that shapes the character, caliber, and future of an individual. If the people remember me as a good teacher that will be the biggest honour for me.” In the words of the great philosopher Aristotle, “Teachers, who educate children, deserve more honor than parents, who merely gave them birth; for the latter provided mere life, while the former ensured a good life.” The value of human wealth of a nation largely depends upon the skills and abilities of its teachers. This article describes about career in school teaching.
Levels in School Teaching
The school system in India has four levels: lower primary, upper primary, high and higher secondary. The lower primary school is divided into five “standards”, upper primary school into two, high school into three and higher secondary into two. Accordingly, there are following categories of School Teachers:
Pre-Primary Teachers: Pre-primary education is very important for the development of young children before they enter formal school. It is the first step towards entering the world of knowledge as well as a healthy and purposeful life. Pre-primary education also known as kindergarten, play school or nursery helps children become more independent and confident as well as promoting the all round development of the children. Various types of pre primary schools, also known as kindergarten, play school or nursery are available in India and more children are now attending pre-schools.
The job responsibilities of a Pre School Teacher include nurturing and developing knowledge, abilities and social skills of children and helping to prepare them for primary school education by employing a variety of educational techniques like storytelling, pictures, rhyming, educational play, media etc. They help children improve their cognitive skills, social competencies and build self-esteem. So, if you love the company of small children and have virtues like patience, energy, enthusiasm, passion and friendly attitude, then this can be one of the most satisfying career for you.
Eligibility and Qualifications Required
The minimum eligibility criterion to become a preschool teacher in our country is plus two. Following plus two, a one-year certificate/ diploma course in Nursery Teacher Training (NTT) can be pursued to become a preschool teacher. The main aim of NTT course is to cater to the nursery (pre-primary) level teacher workforce in India. NTT students are trained in areas like Child psychology, Child care and health, Basics of pre-primary education, History and philosophy of pre-primary education, Nursery school organization, community, Child health and Nutrition.
Elementary education covers the primary (6-11 years) and upper primary (11-14 years) age group. In most Indian states, this translates into the successful completion of prescribed educational requirements till Class VII. Elementary Teachers introduce kids to a variety of new subjects like Science, Social Science, Literature, Mathematics and etc.
The job responsibilities of Elementary teachers include create lesson plans, utilize various curriculum resources, integrate competencies, goals, and objectives into lesson plans, utilize curricula that reflect the diverse educational, cultural, and linguistic backgrounds of the students served, develop incentives to keep participants in class and develop professional relationships with other agencies and programs.
Eligibility & Qualifications Required
The qualification required for the being a primary government teacher is 10+2 passed with at least 50% marks in it. For becoming a government school teacher one needs to clear Teacher Eligibility Test. Basically TET are of two types out of which one is held by Central Board of Secondary Education, known as Central Teacher Eligibility Test (CTET) and other is held by State Government named as state TET. The CTET applies to schools of the Central Government: Kendriya Vidyal-ayas, Navodaya Vidyalayas, Central Tibetan Schools, etc. and schools under the administrative control of UT’s of Chandigarh, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu and Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep and NCT of Delhi. CTET may also apply to the unaided private schools, who may exercise the option of considering the CTET. The CTET qualifying certificate for appointment is valid for seven years from the date of declaration of its result for all categories. There is no restriction on the number of attempts a person can take for acquiring a CTET Certificate. A person who has qualified CTET may also appear again for improving his/her score.
Minimum Qualifications for becoming Teacher for Classes I-V: Primary Stage
Senior Secondary (or its equivalent) with at least 50% marks and passed or appearing in final year of 2- year Diploma in Elementary Education, or
Senior Secondary (or its equivalent) with at least 45% marks and passed or appearing in final year of 2- year Diploma in Elementary Education (by whatever name known), in accordance with the NCTE (Recognition Norms and Procedure), Regulations, 2002. or
Senior Secondary (or its equivalent) with at least 50% marks and passed or appearing in final year of 4- year Bachelor of Elementary Education (B.El.Ed). or
Senior Secondary (or its equivalent) with at least 50% marks and passed or appearing in final year of 2- year Diploma in Education (Special Education)*. or
Graduation and passed or appearing in final year of two year Diploma in Elementary Education (by whatever name known).
Minimum Qualifications for becoming Teacher for Classes VI-VIII:
Graduation and passed or appearing in final year of 2-year Diploma in Elementary Education (by whatever name known). or
Graduation with at least 50% marks and passed or appearing in 1-year Bachelor in Education (B.Ed). Or
Graduation with at least 45% marks and passed or appearing in 1-year Bachelor in Education (B.Ed), in accordance with the NCTE (Recognition Norms and Procedure) Regulations issued from time to time in this regard. or
Senior Secondary (or its equivalent) with at least 50% marks and passed or appearing in final year of 4- year Bachelor in Elementary Education (B.El.Ed). or
Senior Secondary (or its equivalent) with at least 50% marks and passed or appearing in final year of 4- year B.A/ B.Sc.Ed or B.A.Ed/B.Sc.Ed. Or
Graduation with at least 50% marks and passed or appearing in 1-year B.Ed. (Special Education)*. or
Any candidate having qualified B.Ed. Programme recognized by the NCTE is eligible to appear in TET/CTET. Moreover, as per the existing TET guidelines circulated vide NCTE letter dated 11-02-2011, a person who is pursuing any of the teacher education courses (recognized by the NCTE or the RCI, as the case may be) specified in the NCTE Notification dated 23rd August 2010 is also qualified to appear in the TET/CTET.
CTET, December 2019 Exam Schedule
The application process for CTET, December 2019 is underway. The last date for submission of on-line application is 18-09-2019, while last date for submission of fee: 23-09-2019 (Before 15:30 Hrs.). A candidate can apply for the Central Teacher Eligibility Test On-line by logging on CTET official website www.ctet.nic.in only. The examination will be held on December 8th, 2019.
Structure and Content of CTET
All questions in CTET are Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs), with four alternatives out of which one answer is the most appropriate. Each question carries one mark and there is no negative marking. The exam consists of two papers. Paper I is for a person who intents to be a teacher for classes I to V. Paper II will be for a person who intents to be a teacher for classes VI to VIII. A person who intents to be a teacher for both levels (classes I to V and classes VI to VIII) will have to appear in both the papers (Paper I and Paper II).
Paper I (for Classes I to V) Primary Stage:
Structure and Content (All Compulsory):
|Child Development and Pedagogy||30 MCQs||30 Marks|
|Language I (compulsory)||30 MCQs||30 Marks|
|Language II (compulsory)||30 MCQs||30 Marks|
|Mathematics||30 MCQs||30 Marks|
|Environmental Studies||30 MCQs||30 Marks|
|Total||150 MCQs||150 Marks|
As per the CTET information bulletin, the test items on Child Development and Pedagogy will focus on educational psychology of teaching and learning relevant to the age group of 6-11 years. They will focus on understanding the characteristics and needs of diverse learners, interaction with learners and the attributes and qualities of a good facilitator of learning. The Test items in Language I will focus on the proficiencies related to the medium of instruction. The Test items in Language II will focus on the elements of language, communication and comprehension abilities. Language II will be a language other than Language I. A candidate may choose any one language as Language I and other as Language II from the available language options and will be required to specify the same in the Confirmation Page.
List of languages:
- English 11. Marathi
- Hindi 12. Mizo
- Assamese 13. Nepali
- Bengali 14. Oriya
- Garo 15. Punjabi
- Gujarati 16. Sanskrit
- Kannada 17. Tamil
- Khasi 18. Telugu
- Malyalam 19. Tibetan
- Manipuri 20. Urdu
The Test items in Mathematics and Environmental Studies focuses on the concepts, problem solving abilities and pedagogical understanding and applications of the subjects.
Paper II (for Classes VI to VIII) Elementary Stage:
Structure and Content (All Compulsory):
|1.||Child Development & Pedagogy (compulsory)||30 MCQs||30 Marks|
|2.||Language I (compulsory)||30 MCQs||30 Marks|
|3.||Language II (compulsory)||30 MCQs||30 Marks|
|4.||(for Mathematics and Science teacher) Mathematics and Science||60 MCQs||60 Marks|
|5.||(for Social Studies/Social Science teacher) Social Studies/Social Science||60 MCQs||60 Marks|
|6.||Total||150 MCQs||150 Marks|
Schedule of CTET December-2019 is as follows:
(The Paper-l will be held in the morning session and Paper-II in the evening session)
|Date of Examination||Paper||Timing||Duration|
|08-12-2019 (Sunday)||PAPER-I||09.30 AM TO 12.00 NOON||2.30 HOURS|
|08-12-2019 (Sunday)||PAPER -II||02.00 PM TO 04.30 PM||2.30 HOURS|
Secondary level Teachers:
Secondary education begins in class 8th and lasts until class 10th. The schools which impart education up till 10th class are known as Secondary Schools, High Schools or Senior Schools etc. The minimum qualification for secondary education level teachers is Graduation with Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) or its equivalent; or Four years’ integrated B.Sc., B.Ed. or an equivalent course. An individual having graduation with B.Ed becomes a Trained Graduate Teacher or TGT. A TGT teaches up to class 10th.
Trained Graduate Teacher (TGT) Exam:
This exam conducted by most of the states in India, for the recruitment of graduate teacher in state govt. schools.Candidates from any Graduate in any discipline with B.Ed degree from recognized institutes may apply to TGT exam.
Senior Secondary School Teachers:
Senior Secondary Education in India is of 2 years. There is uniformity on this level of education in terms of duration and classes across the country and all states and UTs follow this 10+2 pattern. Senior Secondary Schools in India include classes 11th to 12th. At this level of education students choose their preferred stream and subjects. They can pursue Arts, Commerce, Science (Mathematics and Biology). The schools which provide education up till 12th class are commonly known as Senior Secondary Schools or Higher Secondary Schools. Some universities and colleges also offer the education of these classes. The minimum qualifications for the senior secondary level teachers include Master’s Degree in the relevant subject with Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) or its equivalent; or Two years’ integrated M.Sc.Ed. course or an equivalent course.If you are a post-graduate (eg., M.A.), and have done your B.Ed or M.Ed then you become a post graduate teacher, or PGT. A PGT can teach up to class XII.
PGT Post Graduate Teacher Exam
These exams are conducted by most of the states in India, for the recruitment of senior secondary level teacher in state govt. schools.
The PGT exams include questions on General Awareness, Current Affairs, General Science & Indian Constitution, Reasoning, Quantitative Aptitude, Teaching Aptitude, etc.
By Shweta Saras